Computer science is the brand of science in which we studied the process of algorithmic and computational machines. There is a different range of topics from the theoretical studies of algorithms process and information, computation to solve the practical issues of implementing computer systems such as in hardware and software. In a study of this subject it is found that students can solve any problems which are related to computer systems, especially information processes such as control, perception, intelligence, learning, and communication.
The branch is divided into two fields. The first field of is theoretical, and the second one is the practical disciplines, for example, the theory of computer process and models of the computers and general classes of the problem-solving theories related to the computers and algorithmic process. According to a study, more specific applications of computers are computer graphics and computation geometry. Algorithmics is one of the emphasize applications of this stream, and algorithmics is also known as the heart of Computer science. Description of the computational process has been considered and approached by the programming language theory, while the programming language theory of computers involves the use of them to create complex systems. Computer-controlled types of equipment and components of computers are described by computer architecture. Computer architecture is the set of rules and methods which describe the functions, organization, and implementation of the computer systems.
It determines that what can and what cannot be automated, like the other paradigms of computer systems, and the computer scientists are mainly focused on the academic research on the computer is the main fundamental concern of this stream.
History of Computer science
Charles Babbage is referred to as the father of this stream. The history of this stream begins so many years ago before our modern discipline of computer studies that is usually appearing in the form of physics and mathematics. The modern, digital computer is the earliest foundation and predates the invention of computer application. Abacus was existing since antiquity, aiding in computer systems or computation such as division or multiplication. This is the first machine-based method for calculating fixed numerical tasks. Before the development of sophisticated computing types of equipment, algorithms used for performing computations.
The first working mechanical calculator was constructed and designed in 1623 by Wilhelm Schickard. Another second working mechanical calculator that is also known as stepped Reckoner was demonstrated in 1673 by Gottfried Leibniz.
Gottfried Leibniz documenting the binary number system because of the reasons Gottfried Leibniz considered the first computer scientist and information theorist.
When Thomas de Colmar invented his simplified arithmometer that was the first calculating machine that was strong enough and reliable for daily use in an office environment. After that invention in the year, 1820 Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry. Charles Babbage started to design the first automatic mechanical calculator in 1822, which is also known as the Difference Engine.
IBM founded the Watson scientific computing Laboratory at Columbia University in New York City in 1945. In the year 1946, Columbia offers one of the best and first academic credit courses in the stream. A distinct academic discipline of the stream began to be established in the year 1950 and early year 1960.
In 1953 the university of Cambridge computer laboratory launched the world’s first computer application degree program named the Cambridge Diploma in Computer science. In the year 1962 in which Purdue university in the United States, the first Computer science department was formed.
Julius Edgar Lilienfeld proposed a concept of a field-effect transistor in the year 1925. The first transistorized computer that is also known as the transistor computer built by the University of Manchester in 1953.
Mohamed Atalla and Dawonkahng invented the Metal oxide silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) in 1959 at Bell labs. These inventions are leading to what is known as the microcomputer revolution or computer revolution.
Fields of Computer science
There are different types of fields and branches of the computer application in the respect of the different study courses, career, and job profiles of the students. For example –
- Computer hardware
- Computer networking
- Computer software
- Cloud computing
- Cyber security and Ethical Hacking
- Data science and data analysis
- Programming language
- Micro architecture
- Operating system
- Web designing
- Web development
- Graphics design
- R&D (Research and Development)
- Network analytics and testing
- Computer operator
- Artificial intelligence
- Computer-aided design drafter
- Data entry operator
- Computer administrator
- IT help desk technician
- DBMS (Database management)
- Video game designer
- UI designer
- Computer architecture and engineering
- Computer animation and 3D design
- Computer VFX
- Motion graphics and visual effects
- Computer bio system
- Numeric analysis
- Education field
- Traffic control system
- Computer accounting
- Mobile application development
- Content writer
- User experience design
- Digital marketing
- Business management
- Stenographer and typist
- Health diagnosis
- Hospital administrator
- Clinical image processing
- Online marketing
- Medical records technology
- Video editing and compositing
- Computer services and maintenance
- Computer assembling
- Platform-based development
There are different types of range of the topics from theoretical studies of algorithms and the limit of computation to do practical and solve the issues of the computer systems in hardware and software.
- Theoretical Computer science Theory of computation
- Information and coding theory
- Data structures and algorithms
- Programming language theory and formal methods
- Computer systems and computational processes
- Artificial intelligence
- Computer architecture and organizations
- Concurrent, parallel, and distributed computing
- Computer networks
- Computer security and Cryptography
- Databases and data mining
- Computer graphics and visualization
- Digital signal, image, and sound processing
- Applied Computer science
- Computational science, finance, and engineering
- Software engineering
- Human-computer interaction
Firstly, the Computer science is as old as the field of science, just because the old and traditional scientists did not recognize the computational processes as natural processes. Although it has become an industrial activity or study in many respects the success of programming language is a subjective affair.